Why I won’t wear your free t-shirt

With DrupalCon coming up I figured I want to talk about a question I will be asking vendors giving out t-shirts: do you have women’s shirts? I’ll than request a men’s large (since it’s the size that actually fits my body). Given the reminder this week about the problems in the Drupal community around misogynism – a series of events I’m not yet ready to comment on myself – this seems appropriate topic if not the most timely.

Close your eyes and picture a Drupal developer (go ahead I’ll wait). I can’t say who you saw, but too many sales managers for technology companies just pictured a man or group of men. They want those developers to think nicely of their company and to wear shirts with their logos. They will buy, and in a few weeks give away, t-shirts for the developers they just pictured. They will forget that our community is strong because we’re diverse, and gender is a critically important form of diversity for us.

Thinking about this through t-shirts isn’t a new or original idea. The first time I ran into a form of this discussion was this 2006 blog post from Kathy Sierra (which I probably read in 2007, so I’ve been thinking about this for 10 years). I was a big fan of her work at the time (and was until she was driven from tech circles shortly after), and the support she got from women on the topic was almost as influential on me as the attacks she received from men for daring to talk about her own body. And it’s not just tech: if you listened to the entire Planet Money t-shirt saga you hear the NPR staff complain about the same problem.

For me usually the conversation starts something like:

“Do you have t-shirts for women?”

“Yes, do you want one for your wife or girlfriend?”

“No, I’ll take a men’s large.”

[confused stare from salesperson followed by them giving me a t-shirt.]

Like many tech conferences, there are usually lots of chances to get free t-shirts. Usually from vendors giving them away free. For anyone who hasn’t thought about it, that t-shirt is meant to make you and I into walking billboards. It puts their brand in the minds of people in your office, neighborhood, and anyplace else you go. And it works. After I got home from New Orleans last year I wore shirts from several different hosting companies everyday for a week, and since we were talking about new hosting relationships at the time, I got questions about the company on my shirt each day – we do business with two of those companies now. So giving me a free t-shirt is a request for me to advertise on their behalf which could easily pay for itself.

A few years ago I was at DrupalCon with a female colleague who was attending for the first time. The all male dev team members had attended several times before that and she had always liked the interesting variety of t-shirts they came home with, and so was looking forward to finally getting something for herself. Only she didn’t.

Very few vendors had women’s shirts at all and none in her size. Even worse, DrupalCon itself didn’t have a t-shirt for her because the men who had checked in before she arrived had thought their female partners would like the design and had taken all the woman’s shirts.

I should have known this was a risk for her since it’s not like the topic was new, but I didn’t and felt while I felt bad about that doesn’t undo the insult.

Instead of making sure she got to fully participate in our ritual, we allowed her to be left out. Several years had passed since the Kathy Sierra triggered discussion and I wrongly assumed we’d made progress as a community. Oops.

As part of trying to apologize to my friend for my own cluelessness, and in part to try to do something to make our community better, I took up asking vendors with t-shirts if they have women’s sizes. Not because I want one for someone else in particular but because I want other people in general to have the same chances I have. And I am not willing to advertise for companies if they are making our community worse. Anything we do that makes women feel less welcome makes our community worse.

Over time I’ve had interesting conversations with people who have said both yes and no.

The people who say yes are sometimes interesting. Usually they are just confused because they never thought the issue through. Sometimes they cite Kathy Sierra, sometimes they cite a similar experience to my own. Usually we’ll exchange thank you’s and I’ll move on.

If they say no, the conversation goes a bit differently. I am always nice, but I don’t let them off the hook. I’ll ask “why not”.  With one exception the answers are unfulfilling.

The most common answer is “I don’t know.” While the salesperson is sure sure no offense was meant (as if they would tell me if one was), I generally offer to wait while they call their boss to figure out why they don’t want women to advertise for them (no one has taken me up on it yet).

The next most popular answer (usually offered right after saying “I don’t know” didn’t get me to go away)  “It’s too expensive to add those sizes.” Typically this is from a person who gives out hundreds or thousands of t-shirts a year. This just isn’t true at that scale. Most vendors are still going to order enough shirts to get over the same price breaks they would have with their current order, and every t-shirt they give a woman is one they didn’t give a man. The only way for this to really be true is if they end up giving away more total shirts because more people want them, which is the whole point of the exercise. The time a RackSpace employee gave me this answer I just stared at the woman, in a woman’s cut RackSpace t-shirt, and said “Really”?  The next year RackSpace had women’s t-shirts (this probably had nothing to do with me, but it’s nice to think it might have).

I’ll also sometimes get “We didn’t have room to pack them.” I usually get this answer from smaller vendors who may not have as many to give out as a company like RackSpace or Pantheon, and are therefore concerned about bringing shirts that won’t find a person to take them. But I’ve gotten it from big companies too who will admit shipping five or six boxes of shirts. Either way, sorry, but no, avoid insulting potential customers by splitting your packing space.

The final answer I hear is “Women don’t want them.” This is the go to excuse from men who don’t want to think about why women don’t participate in anything related to technology. I even got that response from a man planning a Drupal Camp when I pointed out that none of the women on the planning committee had shown any interest in having shirts at all – his daughter being one of them. When I commented that maybe they didn’t like not having shirts that don’t fit a wave of nodding followed: we had women’s shirts made.

If you are attending DrupalCon, or any other large event for that matter, please ask everyone giving out t-shirts about women’s sizes. If they say yes, take whatever you want, but if they say no I encourage you to think hard about if you want to advertise for them. And draw them into a discussion on the topic.

If you are bringing t-shirts to DrupalCon, or any other large event I attend, please bring t-shirts for as many different types and sizes of attendees as you can fit. The right ratio is a hard problem to solve, and I know you have limited space. Ask the conference for an estimate of attendee demographics and make your best guess. If you guess wrong that’s okay, apologize and try to do better next time.

Do I think refusing to take free t-shirts from tech companies will suddenly solve all our the gender issues? Of course not. But it does force people into conversations they aren’t used to having, and it makes at least some stop and think about ways we create unfriendly atmospheres for women in technology.

Good Enough Passwords

I deal with passwords a lot. In any given day I log into five or six servers, another dozen web sites, plus my personal systems and tools. Some are stored in password managers, some are memorized, some are mine, and some are shared. To avoid losing things I need I have several patterns, schemes, and password generation tools I use to try to keep up with it all and make sure I’m using good passwords most of the time.

I don’t have a deep background in cryptography and a definitely don’t consider myself an expert in the related math. But I have spent a lot time time with users and observing behaviors, so I do consider myself reasonably knowledgeable about how people actually behave with their passwords.

A couple years ago this XKCD comic came out, and an admin’s view of it has become one of my measures of their understanding of users and passwords:

XKCD Password Strength Comic

If you’re interested in understanding what technically right and wrong with the math and assumptions in that comic you might find some of the references on explain XKCD’s discussion interesting.

I don’t actually think that’s the interesting part. To me the interesting part is the number of system administrators I have talked to who are convinced the comic is wrong, because they are also convinced that anyone who doesn’t use truly random password and avoid password reuse is stupid and therefore their behavior can be ignored. These people have access to your system, and it’s your job to keep those system secure. The problem isn’t your users, the problem is we have made passwords unreasonably hard to do right.

At this point people generally know they are supposed to use good passwords, like we all know we’re supposed to brush after every meal. Sure there are people that do that, but not most of us. We all know that passwords should be long (even if we fight over the exact length to require) and use lots of different kinds of characters (although many password systems require them to be from the latin character set). But it’s too hard to follow all the rules, and security experts are so concerned about being right they don’t provide useful guidance about when the cheat.

Let me grant those who like long-random passwords the following point: if you use different passwords on every system that needs one, and they are all truly random strings, and you memorize them all so you don’t have them recorded someplace they could be stolen, you have the hardest for an attacker to crack. Great for you. But I work with people who are not perfect, have limited memories, and need to be able to have shared access on a regular basis.

Knowing the perfect random password generation pattern is useful in some cases (or so I’ve heard), but rarely are you in a case where you can use the perfect setup. I don’t care about perfect: I’m not perfect, I don’t work in a perfect office, have perfect colleagues, or perfect clients. So here are my good-enough rules for admins and developers.

0) Make it easier to do the right thing than the hard thing. This gets to be rule zero, because everything else is meant to support this idea. You want the path of least resistance to be the one that gets you the results that are secure enough to protect your systems from the attackers they face. Make sure your users have good tools for storing passwords, settings on password fields to encourage good (not perfect) behavior, and a minimum of stupid rules you don’t really understand but someone told you are “best practice”.

1) If you make it hard for people, they will find a way around you and likely weaken security. It might be post-it notes on monitors, cycles of passwords that are 5 long (because you force them to not use the last 4). If you make it hard to pick a password (because you required punctuation but not  ‘, \, “, &, or !), you will end up with lots of passwords that are curse words – and your attacker will thank you for shrinking the search space. If they are using touch devices to type them, they will do things like repeat as many characters as you allow to make it easier to type (if you ban any repeats: again the attackers thank you for shrinking the search space). All things you want them to stop doing.

2) Do not have a maximum password length. Any time I hit a system with an upper bound of 12 I want to scream (although jokes about chimps might be a better tactic). Even if you are using a secure hashing system that ignores all characters after some point: who cares? Why limit the attacker’s search space to only strings between 8-12 characters?!? Sure that’s a massive search space, but not nearly as big as it could be.

3) Do have minimum lengths. Minimum lengths forces your users to do two things. First, not use passwords that could be broken in less time than it took you to read this article. Second, it gives you leverage to push them to either good phrases or generators. If you’re smart and don’t have legacy systems to support go with something like 15 or 20 characters.

4) Expect people to share passwords. Many times this is actually a basic job function. If I won the lottery tomorrow (unlikely since I don’t play) and don’t come to work (also unlikely since I would wait until I had the money reinvested before making plans) the person taking my place needs to be able to access all the tools, servers, and accounts I’ve setup. If she can’t do those basic things I haven’t done my job responsibly.

5) Provide secure means to share passwords. I have more than once been sent a password in chat (running through Google, Slack, or once upon a time AOL’s servers), email, word documents, text file, and a variety of other terrible solutions. This happens not because my colleagues didn’t know it was a bad thing to do but because they didn’t have a good option. We spend so much time locking down passwords, that we don’t create secure channels to hand them around responsibly which defeats the purpose of secured storage.

6) Pay attention to how users will be using individual passwords. Not all passwords are created equal, which is why I encourage you to support throw away passwords: something short, easy to remember, and only used places it doesn’t matter if it were stolen. But even when a password is important there are issues like the ease of entering them: if I have to enter a password 4 times a day it better be easy to type or I better be able to copy and paste it. If I need it once a month it should be impossible to remember and its okay if it takes me 5 minutes to get it right. Most of us can’t type complicated passwords quickly, and if we have to enter it a bunch we want to be fast.  This is even more true for people using touch interfaces where shift is an extra keystroke as is changing to a different part of the standard keyboard.

7) Stop telling people they have to use a different password every time. This is an extension of number six. People have too many passwords, and that’s not changing soon. Sure we can encourage them to use LastPass, or a tool like it, but most people aren’t going to (and if they did that could be its own problem since it creates single points of failure). Tell them to use a different password when it’s important, and to use a throw away password or scheme when it’s not.

Not everything needs to be Fort Knox so stop pretending it is.  Important things like your bank account(s), your email, Facebook need their own passwords because they can be used to do real damage in the real world. Online communities, games, and other trivial places asking you to sign in do not.

8) Don’t lecture people about bad personal password habits. Honestly, this is probably the hardest one (here I am lecturing you about not lecturing them). Usually the first people to admit they are sloppy about passwords are developers and sysadmins. Sure, they will tell you about the awesome password wallet they use first, and the two factor authentication they created for their blog, but then toss off that all their production servers have the same root password and it’s 8-10 nonrandom characters. Even if you are perfect (if you are still reading this by definition you probably have room for improvement) don’t lecture people who aren’t. It just makes them feel they can’t admit when something has gone wrong, or if they don’t understand something. When you find people doing it wrong, show them how easy it is to do it right, and if it isn’t apologize and fix it.