Bypass Pantheon Timeouts for Drupal 8

Pantheon is an excellent hosting service for both Drupal and WordPress sites. But to make their platform work and scale well they have set a number of limits built into the platform, these include process time limits and memory limits that are large enough for the vast majority of projects, but from time to time run you into trouble on large jobs.

For data loading and updates their official answer is typically to copy the database to another server, run your job there, and copy the database back onto their server. That’s fine if you can afford to freeze updates to your production site, setup a process to mirror changes into your temporary copy, or some other project overhead that can be limiting and challenging. But sometimes that’s not an option, or the data load takes too long for that to be practical on a regular basis.

I recently needed to do a very large import for records into a Drupal database and so started to play around with solutions that would allow me to ignore those time limits. We were looking at needing to do about 50 million data writes and the running time was initially over a week to complete the job.

Since Drupal’s batch system was created to solve this exact problem it seemed like a good place to start. For this solution you need a file you can load and parse in segments, like a CSV file, which you can read one line at a time. It does not have to represent the final state, you can use this to actually load data if the process is quick, or you can serialize each record into a table or a queue job to actually process later.

One quick note about the code samples, I wrote these based on the service-based approach outlined in my post about batch services and the batch service module I discussed there. It could be adapted to a more traditional batch job, but I like the clarity the wrapper provides for breaking this back down for discussion.

The general concept here is that we upload the file and then progressively process it from within a batch job. The code samples below provide two classes to achieve this, first is a form that provides a managed file field which create a file entity that can be reliably passed to the batch processor. From there the batch service takes over and using a bit of basic PHP file handling to load the file into a database table. If you need to do more than load the data into the database directly (say create complex entities or other tasks) you can set up a second phase to run through the values to do that heavier lifting. 

To get us started the form includes this managed file:

   $form['file'] = [
     '#type' => 'managed_file',
     '#name' => 'data_file',
     '#title' => $this->t('Data file'),
     '#description' => $this->t('CSV format for this example.'),
     '#upload_location' => 'private://example_pantheon_loader_data/',
     '#upload_validators' => [
       'file_validate_extensions' => ['csv'],
     ],
   ];

The managed file form element automagically gives you a file entity, and the value in the form state is the id of that entity. This file will be temporary and have no references once the process is complete and so depending on your site setup the file will eventually be purged. Which all means we can pass all the values straight through to our batch processor:

$batch = $this->dataLoaderBatchService->generateBatchJob($form_state->getValues());

When the data file is small enough, a few thousand rows at most, you can load them all right away without the need of a batch job. But that runs into both time and memory concerns and the whole point of this is to avoid those. With this approach we can ignore those and we’re only limited by Pantheon’s upload file size. If they file size is too large you can upload the file via sftp and read directly from there, so while this is an easy way to load the file you have other options.

As we setup the file for processing in the batch job, we really need the file path not the ID. The main reason to use the managed file is they can reliably get the file path on a Pantheon server without us really needing to know anything about where they have things stashed. Since we’re about to use generic PHP functions for file processing we need to know that path reliably:

$fid = array_pop($data['file']);
$fileEntity = File::load($fid);
$ops = [];

if (empty($fileEntity)) {
  $this->logger->error('Unable to load file data for processing.');
  return [];
}
$filePath = $this->fileSystem->realpath($fileEntity->getFileUri());
$ops = ['processData' => [$filePath]];

Now we have a file and since it’s a csv we can load a few rows at time, process them, and then start again.

Our batch processing function needs to track two things in addition to the file: the header values and the current file position. So in the first pass we initialize the position to zero and then load the first row as the header. For every pass after that we need to find point we left off. For this we use generic PHP files for loading and seeking the current location:

// Old-school file handling.
$path = array_pop($data);
$file = fopen($path, "r");
...
fseek($file, $filePos);

// Each pass we process 100 lines, if you have to do something complex
// you might want to reduce the run.
for ($i = 0; $i < 100; $i++) {
  $row = fgetcsv($file);
  if (!empty($row)) {
    $data = array_combine($header, $row);
    $member['timestamp'] = time();
    $rowData = [
             'col_one' => $data['field_name'],
             'data' => serialize($data),
             'timestamp' => time(),
    ];
    $row_id = $this->database->insert('example_pantheon_loader_tracker')
             ->fields($rowData)
             ->execute();

    // If you're setting up for a queue you include something like this.
    // $queue = $this->queueFactory->get(‘example_pantheon_loader_remap’);
    // $queue->createItem($row_id);
 }
 else {
   break;
 }
}
$filePos = (float) ftell($file);
$context['finished'] = $filePos / filesize($path);

The example code just dumps this all into a database table. This can be useful as a raw data loader if you need to add a large data set to an existing site that’s used for reference data or something similar.  It can also be used as the base to create more complex objects. The example code includes comments about generating a queue worker that could then run over time on cron or as another batch job; the Queue UI module provides a simple interface to run those on a batch job.

I’ve run this process for several hours at a stretch.  Pantheon does have issues with systems errors if left to run a batch job for extreme runs (I ran into problems on some runs after 6-8 hours of run time), so a prep into the database followed by running on queue or something else easier to restart has been more reliable.